An difríocht idir athruithe ar: "Cló Gaelach"

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{{Infobox Writing system
|name= Latin script (Gaelic variant)
|type= [[Alphabet]]
|time= 1571 – ca. 1960
|languages= [[Irish language|Irish]]
|fam1 = [[Latin alphabet|Latin script]]
|fam2 = [[Insular script]]
|children=
|sample= Gaelic-font-Gaelach.png
|imagesize= 200px
|iso15924= Latg
}}
 
The term '''Gaelic type''', a translation of the [[Irish language|Irish]] phrase '''cló Gaelach''' (pronounced {{IPA-ga|kɫ̪oː ˈɡeːɫ̪əx|}}), refers to a family of [[Insular script|insular]] [[typeface]]s devised for writing Irish and used between the 16th and 20th centuries. Sometimes, all Gaelic typefaces are called ''[[Celtic art|Celtic]]'' or ''[[uncial]]'', though most Gaelic types are not uncials. In Ireland the term ''cló Gaelach'' is used in opposition to the term ''cló Rómhánach'', in English '[[Roman type]]'. Gaelic type is sometimes called '''Irish type'''. The "Anglo-Saxon" types of the 17th century are included in this category because both the Anglo-Saxon types and the Gaelic/Irish types derive from the [[Insular script|Insular]] manuscript hand.
 
==Tréithe==
[[Image:Gaelic-fonts.png|left|thumb|Overview of some Gaelic typefaces]]
 
Besides the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, Gaelic typefaces must include all vowels with [[acute accent]]s (Áá Éé Íí Óó Úú) as well as a set of consonants with [[dot above]] ({{Unicode|Ḃḃ Ċċ Ḋḋ Ḟḟ Ġġ Ṁṁ Ṗṗ Ṡṡ Ṫṫ}}), and the [[Tironian notes|Tironian sign et "{{Unicode|⁊}}"]], used for ''agus'' 'and' in Irish. Gaelic typefaces also often include insular forms of the letters ''s'' and ''r'', and some of them contain a number of [[ligature (typography)|ligature]]s used in earlier Gaelic typography and deriving from the manuscript tradition. Lower-case ''i'' is drawn without a dot (though it is not the [[dotless i|Turkish dotless ''ı'']]), and the letters ''d'', ''f'', ''g'', and ''t'' have insular shapes.
Many modern Gaelic typefaces include Gaelic letterforms for the letters ''j'', ''k'', ''q'', ''v'', ''w'', ''x'', ''y'', and ''z'', and typically provide support for at least the vowels of the other [[Celtic language]]s. They also distinguish between [[&]] and {{Unicode|[[⁊]]}} (as did traditional typography), though some modern fonts replace the ampersand with the Tironian note ostensibly because both mean 'and'.
 
==Bunús==
{{main|Insular script}}
The Irish uncial alphabet originated in medieval manuscripts as an "insular" variant of the Latin alphabet. The first Gaelic typeface was designed in 1571 for a [[catechism]] commissioned by [[Elizabeth I]] to help convert the Irish Roman-Catholic population to Protestantism.
 
==Úsáid==
Typesetting in Gaelic script remained common in Ireland until the mid-20th century. Gaelic script is today used merely for decorative typesetting; for example, a number of traditional Irish newspapers still print their name in Gaelic script on the first page, and it is also popular for pub signs, greeting cards, and display advertising. [[Edward Lhuyd]]'s grammar of the [[Cornish language]] used Gaelic-script consonants to indicate sounds like {{IPA|[ð]}} and {{IPA|[θ]}}.
 
== Gaelic script in Unicode ==
[[Unicode]] treats the Gaelic script as a font variant of the [[Latin alphabet]]. A lowercase [[insular g]] (ᵹ) was added in version 4.1 as part of the Phonetic Extensions block because of its use in Irish linguistics as a phonetic character for {{IPA|[ɣ]}}.
Unicode 5.1 (2008) further added a capital G (Ᵹ) and both capital and lowercase letters D, F, R, S, T, besides "turned insular G", on the basis that [[Edward Lhuyd]] used these letters in his 1707 work ''Archaeologia Britannica'' as a scientific orthography for [[Cornish language|Cornish]].
 
* Ᵹ ᵹ [[Insular G]] (U+A77D, U+1D79)
* Ꝺ ꝺ [[Insular D]] (U+A779, U+A77A)
* Ꝼ ꝼ [[Insular F]] (U+A77B, U+A77C)
* Ꝿ ꝿ [[Turned insular G]] (U+A77E, U+A77F)
* Ꞃ ꞃ [[Insular R]] (U+A782, U+A783)
* Ꞅ ꞅ [[Insular S]] (U+A784, U+A785)
* Ꞇ ꞇ [[Insular T]] (U+A786, U+A787)
 
==Samplaí==
 
[[Image:Gaelic-text-Duibhlinn.png|frame|center|Duibhlinn (digital font 1993, based on Monotype Series 24 A, 1906)]]
 
[[Image:Gaelic-text-Ceanannas.png|frame|center|Ceanannas (digital font 1993, based on drawings of Book of Kells lettering by [[Arthur Baker (calligrapher)|Arthur Baker]].)]]
 
<center>In each figure above, the first sentence is a [[pangram]] and reads:<br>'''''Chuaigh bé mhórshách le dlúthspád fíorfhinn trí hata mo dhea-phorcáin bhig''''',<br>'''''Ċuaiġ bé ṁórsháċ le dlúṫspád fíorḟinn trí hata mo ḋea-ṗorcáin ḃig''''', <br>meaning "A greatly satisfied woman went with a truly white dense spade through the hat of my good little well-fattened pig".<br>
The second sentence (bottom line) reads:<br>'''''Duibhlinn/Ceanannas an cló a úsáidtear anseo''''',<br>
meaning "Duibhlinn/Ceannanas is the font used here".<br>
The second sentence uses the short forms of the letters ''r'' and ''s''; the first uses the long forms.
</center>
 
==Gailearaí==
<gallery>
Image:Dublin City Hall information.JPG|Gaelic script used on an information plaque outside [[City Hall, Dublin|City Hall]], near [[Dublin Castle]].
Image:Gates of Irish College.JPG|Gaelic script on the gates of the [[Pontifical Irish College]] in [[Rome]].
File:Mac grait grave.jpg|Gaelic script on a gravestone in [[County Kerry]].
File:Sign-Irish-English-PS01.jpg|Gaelic script on an Irish national monument.
</gallery>
 
== Foinsí agus Nascanna Seachtracha ==
* [[Michael Everson]]'s [http://www.evertype.com/celtscript/fonthist.html History and classification of Gaelic typefaces], 2000-06-19
* [[Michael Everson]]'s [http://www.evertype.com/celtscript Celtscript range of fonts]
* Brendan Leen's [http://136.206.208.1/library/LIBeng/Special%20Collections/spcoll4cent.htm Four centuries of printing in the Irish character], Cregan Library, St Patrick's College, Drumcondra
* Vincent Morley's [http://www.scribhinn.org/ An Cló Gaelach] (in Irish)
* Mícheál Ó Searcóid's [http://www.tug.org/TUGboat/Articles/tb12-1/tb31searcoid.pdf The Irish Alphabet], an article on the origin, history and present-day usage of the Irish typeface, 1990
* Mathew D. Staunton's [http://www.unicaen.fr/mrsh/lisa/publications/008/v3_2005-1_085staunton.pdf Trojan Horses and Friendly Faces: Irish Gaelic Typography as Propaganda]. ''[http://www.unicaen.fr/mrsh/lisa/indexGb.php?p= La revue LISA]''. [[ISSN]] 1762-6153. Vol. III; n°1. 2005.
* [http://www.gaelchlo.com/bungc.html Bunchló GC], a Gaelic modern minuscule font in Unicode.
* [http://www.iol.ie/~sob/gadelica/ Gadelica], a Gaelic traditional minuscule font in Unicode.
* [http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/~oduibhin/mearchlar/fonts.htm More information about Gaelic fonts]
 
 
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